The aim of the work was to study how projected changes in climate (climate change scenarios), development (planning scenarios), modeled changes in land use (socio‐economic models, Land Shift model), and modeled changes in water availability (hence land use practices), are anticipated to affect patterns of biodiversity in the Jordan River Basin in Palestine and Israel.
This study involved three major parts: theoretical, empirical, and policy analysis. The theoretical part of the work focused on modelling projected changes in mammal distributions in response to climate change scenarios. Our part concentrated on the empirical part of the research which involved studies of the olive fruit fly drawing conclusions regarding its projected distribution changes in response to climate change.
The Palestinian policies and their relevance to the conservation of agro‐biodiversity were also studied. The field work was carried out using different trapping methods. The policy work was carried out by analyzing policy papers.
The experiment has been continued over the first 2 months of 2012. All data which has been collected through 2010 and 2011 has been analyzed and integrated in a report that was directed to the relevant stakeholders (ministry of agriculture, Environmental quality authority, NGOs and farmers associations).
The report has included a clear analysis for the interactions between the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) as a pest, and olives (Olea europaea) as a host crop under the climate influences and the consequent predicted changes in land use and productivity.
The experiment has showed that olive fruit fly distribution is tended to shift to the West and North West along the rain‐fall gradients under the influence of the dryness and extreme temperatures which is expected to be more severe in the eastern part of the WB.
However, the damage capability of the fly is more severe in the Al Faraa ecosystem (South East) and this is because the fly activity peaks coincided with the critical fruit ripening stages on September and October, whereas the fly activity peaks in Merkeh (North West) have been recorded in July and November where the fruits still unripe in July and harvested on November, despite of the lower no of flights collected on the sticky traps in Al Faraa experiment site.
Analysing the Palestinian policies that are relevant to the conservation of agro‐biodiversity was studied, this activity has started in 2011 and accomplished by April 2012. The Palestinian polices and regulations’ which are relevant to the protection of biodiversity and ecosystem services were identified and deeply reviewed. We analyzed 5 local strategies and enacted laws within the Palestinian regulatory framework which have addressed by one way or another the protection of agro‐biodiversity and ecosystem services.
The main formal relevant formal polices that analyzed are: Climate change adaptation strategy and programme of action, Palestinian environmental law 1999, The Palestinian strategy to combat desertification, Environmental strategy and national plan 2011‐2013, and Palestinian national agricultural strategy 2011‐2013.
The conclusion summarizes the main findings of the Palestinian policies and strategies relevant to the conservation of agro‐biodiversity and ecosystem services. There are important technical and financial challenges to the development of effective environmental and climate change adaptation planning in the OPT, but the most significant constraints are external political barriers, as represented by the continuing Israeli occupation of the west bank and the Gaza strip. The political feasibility of addressing these barriers depends of the uncertain prospect of final status negotiations between the Palestinians and Israelis. It is conceivable, nevertheless, that the shared challenge of climate change could at least lead to the Palestinian ‐ Israeli technical cooperation.
Applied value of results
The relevant Palestinian strategies and policies have been analyzed. Ecosystem services protection has been addressed as a crosscutting issue within the policies of analyzed strategies and environmental regulations. The relevant polices has emphasized on the sustainable management of natural resources and landscape. Reduce the environmental impacts of human activities (agricultural, industry). It clearly recommended measurements for protecting natural heritage, prevents deforestation and maintains the
- Saleh A., Ali-Shtayeh Mohammed Saleem, Dayan T. (2013). Animal Biodiversity, In: Katja Tielbörger, Cornelia Claus, Daniela Schloz (Editors) GLOWA Jordan River – An integrated approach to sustainable management of water resources under global change. Phase III, Final Report. Pp70-79.
- Abseh, Z MS., Jamous, RM., Nasr Allah, H. (2009). Efficacy of Olive Fruit Fly “Attract and Kill” traps in olive fruit fly control, and the effect of fruit storage on olive oil quality: a preliminary study. Nablus: Biodiversity & Environmental research Center.