In the present study, the medicinal aromatic plant Mentha spicata has been investigated as a source of essential oil (EO) and pharmaceuticals. The quantity and composition of EO from M. spicata cultivated in Palestine were analyzed seasonally over a three-year period. A significantly higher EO content was produced in summer and fall months (2.54–2.79%). Chemical analysis of EO revealed 31 compounds with oxygenated monoterpenes (90%) as the most abundant components followed by sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons (6 and 3%, respectively). M spicata can be characterized as a carvone chemotype (65%). EO and carvone have shown strong inhibitory activities against the principal enzymes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and overweight diseases (cholinesterase and porcine pancreatic lipase) and also shown strong antidermatophytic activity against Microsporum canis , Trichophyton rubrum , T. mentagrophytes , and Epidermophyton floccosum . The pancreatic lipase inhibition and the synergism showed the potential activity of M. spicata EO and carvone and that their combinations with standard drugs can be useful for the treatment of obesity and overweight. The results also demonstrated that, in addition to their significant inhibitory activity against biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), M. spicata EO and carvone had a strong inhibitory effect on metabolic activity and biomass of the preformed biofilm. The current study supports the utilization of M. spicata EO as a traditional medicine and opens perceptions to find more potent substances in the EO for the management of obesity, AD, and dermatophytosis and for combating drug-resistant bacterial infections.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine